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How are capacitors used to filter noise? [A unique explanation]

If you have worked with guitar pedals and audio circuits in general, you may already know how capacitors are used as low/high pass filters. While designing non-distortion guitar pedals (tremolo, reverb, delay, etc.), a designer uses capacitors in some way or the other to make sure that all the amplification and equalization does not bring in any sort of distortion.




The question is how do you filter out distortion?

This article is about one of the most exciting concepts that exploit the beauty of science and math to provide an altogether new way of thinking about circuits.

Before I actually come to the 'aha-moment', I'd like to make sure everyone reading this article is on the same page. 
If you are already good with low pass filters you can skip reading till you see a bold blue text that says 'skip till here'.
What you see below is called a low pass filter circuit (or to be more precise a passive low pass filter circuit).





Such a filter circuit allows low-frequency signal…

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